Monday, December 31, 2007

For other uses, see Scotch (disambiguation), Scottish (disambiguation), or Scots (disambiguation).
Scotch is an adjective meaning 'of Scotland', now usually pejorative. Common contemporary usage is Scottish or Scots, but Scotch is still in occasional contemporary use outside Scotland. "Scotch" should only pertain to specific products, usually food or drink, such as scotch whisky, scotch pie, scotch broth or scotch eggs.

See also

Scotch whisky
Scotch College
Scots-Irish American
Scots language
Scottish English
Tha Boord o Ulster-Scotch

Friday, December 28, 2007

A Statutory Corporation is a corporation created by statute. Their precise nature varies by jurisdiction thus they might be ordinary companies/corporations owned by a government with or without other shareholders, or they might be a body without shareholders which is controlled by national or sub-national government to the (in some cases minimal) extent provided for in the creating legislation.
Bodies described in the English language as "statutory corporations" exist in the following countries in accordance with the associated descriptions (where provided) :-


Statutory Corporation Canada
An example of a Statutory Corporation is a "Kassenärztliche Vereinigung", a body involved in the provision of out-patient medical services in a German state.

Main article: State-sponsored bodies of the Republic of Ireland.
In the Republic of Ireland, a statutory corporation is a body corporate, which is created under a particular Act of the Oireachtas, which is expected to operate as if it were a commercial company (with or without a subsidy from the Exchequer, depending on whether or not it would make a profit without one). Such bodies do not have shareholders, but are typically boards appointed by a sponsor minister. The provisions of the Companies' Acts do not typically directly apply to such bodies, although their founding legislation may specify similar requirements. As they are not formally companies they do not make a profit or loss, but rather a surplus or deficit.
The statutory corporation format was usually the form most state-sponsored bodies of the Republic of Ireland took until recent years, however usual policy today is that a private limited company by shares or public limited company incorporated under the Companies' Acts is set up instead, with the relevant Minister holding 100% of the issued share capital. Nonetheless as of 2007 several promient statutory corporations continue to exist, such as Radio Telefís Éireann, the Electricity Supply Board, and Bord Gáis Éireann

United Kingdom
At the state level, municipal corporations and counties are often created by legislative acts. Some organizations such as a transit districts or special purpose corporations such as a university, are also created by statute. In some states, a city or country can be created by petition of a certain number or percentage of voters or landholders of the affected area, which then causes a municipal corporation to be chartered as a result of compliance with the appropriate law. Corporations to be established for most other purposes are usually just incorporated as any other non-profit corporation, by filing the paperwork with the appropriate agency as part of the formation of the entity.
At the Federal level, a small number of corporations are created by Congress. Prior to the District of Columbia being granted the ability to issue corporate charters in the late 1800s, corporations operating in the District required a congressional charter. With limited exceptions, most corporations created by Congress are not federally chartered, but are simply created as District of Columbia corporations as a result of the enabling law.
There are a number of federally chartered corporations that still exist, some relatively famous ones include the Boy Scouts of America, each of the Federal Reserve Banks, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The basic advantage for being federally chartered is that no other corporation anywhere in the United States is allowed to have the same name.

Thursday, December 27, 2007

Ty Conklin
Ty Conklin (born March 30, 1976, Anchorage, Alaska) is a goaltender with the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League. He went undrafted, despite repeated honours in the United States Hockey League and the NCAA, while playing for the University of New Hampshire.
He was signed by the Oilers in the summer of 2001 to challenge for the backup role. He spent the bulk of his time with the Hamilton Bulldogs, the then-shared American Hockey League affiliate for the Oilers and Montreal Canadiens. In the 2003/04 season, he spent the entire year in the NHL as first the back-up to Tommy Salo, and then the joint starter with Jussi Markkanen following Salo's trade to the Colorado Avalanche. During the NHL lockout he played in the German Elite League.
He has also played net for the United States national team at the previous two International Ice Hockey Federation world hockey championships. In the 2004 Championships, he was selected as best goaltender.
Following the lockout, Conklin entered the new season as Edmonton's probable starting goaltender, backed up by Jussi Markkanen. Given the prevalent idea that either goaltender could assume the starting job, local media began using the nickname "Conkkanen" (which likely originated on internet message boards) to describe Edmonton's starting goaltender. However, during the 2005-2006 season, both goaltenders proved to be ineffective, forcing the Oilers' General Manager Kevin Lowe to acquire Dwayne Roloson from the Minnesota Wild.

2006 Stanley Cup playoffs
In the 2006 Stanley Cup Playoffs, Conklin was called in to play in Game One of the Stanley Cup Finals in relief of an injured Dwayne Roloson. Late in the third period, he (and former Oiler Jason Smith) committed a blunder that gave the Hurricanes an easy empty-netted goal that cost the Oilers the game. [1] Conklin did not return to the ice again as an Oiler as his team option for the 2006-07 NHL season was subsequently declined. [2]

Wednesday, December 26, 2007

The Queen-in-Parliament (or King-in-Parliament when there is a male monarch), sometimes referred to as the Crown-in-Parliament, is a constitutional law term for the Crown in its legislative role, acting with the advice and consent of the House of Commons and House of Lords (in the United Kingdom) or Senate (in other Commonwealth Realms). Each realm parliament consists of the Crown and the two houses of Parliament (or the unicameral House of Representatives of New Zealand), and bills passed by the two houses are sent to the Sovereign, or Governor General as her representative, for royal assent before they become law. These primary acts of legislation are known as Acts of Parliament. An Act may also provide for secondary legislation which can be made by the Crown, subject to the simple approval, or the lack of disapproval, of both houses of Parliament.
A modern British Act of Parliament will typically contain the following enacting clause:
"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows..."
The phrasing is different when the bill is passed under the provisions of the Parliament Acts, without the consent of the Lords.
Modern Canadian Acts of Parliament typically contain the following enacting clause:
"NOW, THEREFORE, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows..."
Acts of the Scottish Parliament follow a different approach. Although such Acts require Royal Assent, the concept of Queen-in-Parliament has not been incorporated. Instead of the enacting clause seen in UK Acts, Acts of the Scottish Parliament bear the following text above the long title.
"The Bill for this Act of the Scottish Parliament was passed by the Parliament on DATE and received Royal Assent on DATE"

Tuesday, December 25, 2007

Heavy ion
Heavy ion refers to an ionized atom which is usually heavier than carbon. The term is applied in reference to beams of particles used to produce heavy ion collisions in high energy nuclear physics (an area of research that is sometimes mistakenly included within particle physics or high energy physics). In nuclear physics, the atoms used as beam particles are generally completely ionized, so that they are bare atomic nuclei. The nuclei can be directed to a fixed target, or can be split into two beams moving in opposite directions that are brought into collision at a well-defined spot.
Heavy ion nuclei most often used in nuclear physics experiments include carbon, silicon, tungsten, gold, lead, and uranium.

Monday, December 24, 2007

Pierre Leroux
Pierre Leroux (April 7, 1798 - April, 1871), French philosopher and political economist, was born at Bercy near Paris, the son of an artisan.
His education was interrupted by the death of his father, which compelled him to support his mother and family. Having worked first as a mason and then as a compositor, he joined P. Dubois in the foundation of Le Globe which became in 1831 the official organ of the Saint-Simonian community, of which he became a prominent member. In November of the same year, when Enfantin preached the enfranchisement of women and the functions of the couple-prétre, Leroux separated himself from the sect. In 1834 he published an essay entitled "Individualism and Socialism" which, despite its message of scepticism towards both tendencies, introduced the term socialism in French political discourse. In 1838, with J. Reynaud, who had seceded with him, he founded the Encyclopédie nouvelle (eds. 1838-1841). Amongst the articles which he inserted in it were De l'egalité and Refutation de l'éclectisme, which afterwards appeared as separate works.
In 1840 he published his treatise De l'humanité (2nd ed. 1845), which contains the fullest exposition of his system, and was regarded as he philosophical manifesto of the Humanitarians. In 1841 he established the Revue indépendante, with the aid of George Sand, over whom he had great influence. Her Spiridion, which was dedicated to him, Sept cordes de la lyre, Consuelo, and La Comtesse de Rudolstadt, were written under the Humanitarian inspiration.
In 1843 he established at Boussac (Creuse) a printing association organized according to his systematic ideas, and founded the Revue sociala. After the outbreak of the revolution of 1848 he was elected to the Constituent Assembly, and in 1849 to the Legislative Assembly, but his speeches on behalf of the extreme socialist wing were of so abstract and mystical a character that they had no effect. After the coup d'état of 1851 he settled with his family in Jersey, where he pursued agricultural experiments and wrote his socialist poem La Grève de Samarez. On the definitive amnesty of 1869 he returned to Paris, where he died during the Commune.
The writings of Leroux have no permanent significance in the history of thought. He was the propagandist of sentiments and aspirations rather than the expounder of a systematic theory. He has, indeed, a system, but it is a singular medley of doctrines borrowed, not only from Saint-Simonian, but from Pythagorean and Buddhistic sources. In philosophy his fundamental principle is that of what he calls the "triad"--a triplicity which he finds to pervade all things, which in God is "power, intelligence and love," in man "sensation, sentiment and knowledge."
His religious doctrine is Pantheistic; and, rejecting the belief in a future life as commonly conceived, he substitutes for it a theory of metempsychosis. In social economy his views are very vague; he preserves the family, country and property, but finds in all three, as they now are, a despotism which must be eliminated. He imagines certain combinations by which this triple tyranny can be abolished, but his solution seems to require the creation of families without heads, countries without governments and property without rights of possession. In politics he advocates absolute equality--a democracy pushed to anarchy.
Leroux's significance in the history of ideas lies in his attempt to resuscitate spirituality and community in France in the wake of the revolutionary decades of the 1790s and the Napoleonic Era. As was the case with many of his romantic socialist contemporaries, Leroux sought a basis on which to refound the human community that did not rely on the pillars of the old Regime, authority, hierarchy, and the Catholic Church. The span of his lifetime were years of the rise of capitalism and liberal trade policies, and also of the rise of an organized workers' movement. Romantic socialism as a movement attempted to reconcile religious and material needs in society. Leroux' most thorough exposition of this idea is found in his Doctrine de l'Humanite, published first in 1840. In this and other works he argues for a reciprocal notion of human need and identity, emphasizing humanity's interdependence in lieu of atomized individuality.

Sunday, December 23, 2007

Sex symbols
A sex symbol is a famous and/or notable person, male or female, who is found sexually attractive by the general audience.

The film industry played an important part in the rise of sex symbols. It disseminated images of beautiful people around the world, especially during film's silent era, when there were no language barriers.
The first sex symbols were Danish actress Asta Nielsen (nicknamed 'The Silent Muse'), and 'It Girl' Clara Bow in the 1910s and 1920s. Although not seen as a real sex symbol, Lillian Gish ('The First Lady of the Silent Screen') became the most popular actress of the era. Theda Bara and Pola Negri, famed for their vamp roles, were also early female sex symbols. Rudolph Valentino became the first male sex symbol.
Film's Golden Age sex symbols include 1930s stars Marlene Dietrich, Greta Garbo, Jean Harlow (the 'Platinum Blonde'), Mae West and Clark Gable. 40's and 50's icons Brigitte Bardot, Diana Dors, Ava Gardner, Betty Grable, Rita Hayworth, Audrey Hepburn, Veronica Lake, Sophia Loren, Jayne Mansfield, Marilyn Monroe, Kim Novak, Jane Russell, Elizabeth Taylor, Lana Turner, Mamie Van Doren, Marlon Brando, James Dean, Rock Hudson and Robert Mitchum.
Important 60's and 70's sex symbols included Ann-Margret, Jacqueline Bisset, Barbara Bouchet, Jane Fonda, Pam Grier, Ali MacGraw, Sharon Tate, Raquel Welch, Sean Connery, Steve McQueen, Paul Newman, Robert Redford, Burt Reynolds, Arnold Schwarzenegger and John Travolta.
As TV's influence grew during the last three decades there was a slight shift to TV stars becoming more famous, Pamela Anderson, Tiffani-Amber Thiessen, Carmen Electra, Farrah Fawcett, Jennifer Garner, and Don Johnson, all became sex symbols through TV.
More recent silver screen icons are Jessica Alba, Jennifer Aniston, Halle Berry, Scarlett Johansson, Angelina Jolie, Orlando Bloom, George Clooney, and Brad Pitt.

Sex symbols Film
1930's cartoon character Betty Boop was considered to be a sex symbol. [1]

Rock and roll music also played a part in the introduction of sex symbols to pop culture. Classic examples, such as The Beatles, Jimi Hendrix, Michael Jackson, Mick Jagger, Tom Jones, Jim Morrison, Elvis Presley, Prince, Grace Slick, Bruce Springsteen, Rod Stewart and Steven Tyler set the stage for contemporary examples, such as Justin Timberlake, Marky Mark and LL Cool J. Popular sex symbols include: Ciara,Christina Aguilera, Beyoncé, Toni Braxton, Cher, Janet Jackson, Madonna, Kylie Minogue, Shakira, Britney Spears and The Pussycat Dolls.

Recently, video games have had a few "sex symbol" characters as well. Some examples of this category would be Lara Croft, Tifa Lockhart, Mona Sax, Cortana, Rayne and Rikku.

Teen idols
People magazine, Sexiest Man Alive

Saturday, December 22, 2007

This article is part of the series:Banff and Buchan by-election, 2001 Politics and government of Scotland
The Banff and Buchan by-election to the Scottish Parliament was held on June 7, 2001, the same day as a UK general election. The by-election was caused by the resignation of Scottish National Party (SNP) politician Alex Salmond as MSP for Banff and Buchan.
Alex Salmond had decided to return to Westminster, the United Kingdom parliament, as an MP and he won the contest for the Westminster Banff and Buchan constituency the same day as the by-election. The SNP retained the Holyrood seat with Stewart Stevenson (who had originally been selected to contest the Westminster constituency) winning for them.

Scots law
Scottish Government

  • First Minister: Alex Salmond
    Deputy First Minister: Nicola Sturgeon
    Crown Office
    Lord Advocate: Elish Angiolini
    Solicitor General: Frank Mulholland
    Executive agencies
    Public bodies
    Scottish Parliament

    • Acts
      Presiding Officer: Alex Fergusson
      Scottish Parliament Building
      Members (MSPs) : 1999, 2003, 2007
      Constituencies and electoral regions
      Elections: 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011
      Legislative Consent Motion
      Scotland in the UK Government

      • Secretary of State: Des Browne
        Scotland Office
        Reserved matters
        Advocate General: Neil Davidson
        Scotland in the UK Parliament

        • Constituencies
          Grand Committee
          Elections: 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009/10
          Lists of Scottish MPs
          European Parliament

          • European Parliament constituency
            Elections: 2004, 2009
            Local government

            • Subdivisions of Scotland
              Convention of Scottish Local Authorities
              Political parties
              Scottish independence
              Unionism in Scotland Scottish Parliament Election result, 1999

Thursday, December 20, 2007

West Lothian
West Lothian (Lodainn an Iar in Gaelic) is one of the 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy area. It borders onto City of Edinburgh, Scottish Borders, South Lanarkshire, North Lanarkshire and Falkirk.
The council area was created in 1996, under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, with the boundaries of the West Lothian district of the Lothian region.

Michael Connarty
Jim Devine
Angela Constance
Mary Mulligan Towns and villages
Bathgate Broxburn Livingston Linlithgow

Principal Towns/Cities

Former status
The county of West Lothian was called Linlithgowshire or the County of Linlithgow until 1921.
As abolished in 1975 by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, the county contained six burghs. Two are outside the West Lothian unitary council area:
On abolition in 1975 the county, with the exception of the Bo'ness area, was included in the Lothian Region. Bo'ness became part of the Central Region. Lothian Region was divided into four districts, one of which was named West Lothian and approximated to the former county.


Blackness Castle
Linlithgow Palace, birth place of Mary Queen of Scots.
Cairnpapple Hill
Beecraigs Country Park Mentions in popular culture

Wednesday, December 19, 2007

Williamsburg is a city located on the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads region in southeastern Virginia. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 11,998. It is bordered by James City County and York County, and is an independent city. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Williamsburg with James City County for statistical purposes.
Originally Middle Plantation, a 1632 fortified settlement located on high ground on the Peninsula between the James and York rivers, it was renamed Williamsburg after the capital of the Virginia Colony was moved there from Jamestown in 1698. The town received a royal charter as a city in 1722, and was the center of political events in Virginia leading to the American Revolution.
Williamsburg is well-known for Colonial Williamsburg, the restored Historic Area of the city, and for the adjacent College of William and Mary, established in 1693, the second-oldest university in the United States. Nearby, established in 1770, the predecessor of the current Eastern State Hospital was the first known mental hospital in the United States.
The Historic Triangle of Virginia, which also includes Jamestown and Yorktown, is among the most popular tourist destinations in the world, with Williamsburg located in the center. The three are linked by the National Park Service's bucolic Colonial Parkway, a 23 mile-long (37 km) National Scenic Byway which is carefully shielded from views of commercial development. The toll-free Jamestown Ferry is located at the southern end of the Colonial Parkway, State Route 5, another scenic byway, links Williamsburg and Richmond).
Most highway travelers reach Williamsburg via nearby Interstate 64, U.S. Route 60, and State Route 143, each four laned east-west highways. Commercial airline service is available at Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport (20 miles), and at Richmond and Norfolk airports (55 miles each). All are located along I-64 and offer limousine service to Williamsburg, as well as rental cars.
Williamsburg also offers good non-automobile driving alternatives for visitors and citizens. The intermodal Williamsburg Transportation Center is located in a restored Chesapeake and Ohio Railway station near the Historic Area, downtown, and the College. It offers Amtrak and Greyhound services, taxicabs, and rental cars. There, many visitors transfer to the community's local transit bus system, Williamsburg Area Transport, which operates accessible equipment for the mobility-impaired with bicycle racks on buses as well.

History of Williamsburg
The area which became Williamsburg was settled in 1638 and called Middle Plantation. It was so named due to its location on high ground about half-way across the Virginia Peninsula between the James River and York River. A stockade across the peninsula, which was about 6 miles wide at that point between College Creek and Queen's Creek (which each fed into one of the two rivers) provided some security from attacks by the Native Americans for colonists farming and fishing lower on the Peninsula from that point.
The area of Middle Plantation was included in James City Shire when it was established 2 years later in 1634, as the Colony reached a total population of approximately 5,000. (James City Shire changed its name and became known as James City County). The cross-peninsula defensive palisade completed in 1634 was an integral part of the creation of Middle Plantation, though its exact route is long gone. Remnants have recently been discovered by archaeologists on the Bruton Heights School property adjacent to the site of the house of Governor John Page while working on a Colonial Williamsburg archaeological research project. Jamestown, which had been the original capital of Virginia Colony, remained as such until its burning during the events of Bacon's Rebellion in 1676. Immediately after Governor William Berkeley regained control, temporary quarters for the functions of the seat of government were established about 12 miles away on the high ground at Middle Plantation while the Statehouse at Jamestown was rebuilt. The Burgesses found the surroundings both safer and more pleasant environmentally than Jamestown, which was muggy and plagued with mosquitoes.
A school of higher education had long been an aspiration of the colonists. An early attempt at Henricus failed after the Indian Massacre of 1622. The location at the outskirts of the developed part of the colony had left it more vulnerable to the attack. In the 1690s, the colonists tried again and sent Reverend James Blair who spent several years in England lobbying and finally obtained a royal charter for the desired new school, which was named the College of William and Mary in honor of the monarchs of the time. When Reverend Blair returned to Virginia, the new school was founded in a safe place, Middle Plantation in 1693. Classes began in temporary quarters in 1694, and the College Building, a precursor to the Wren Building, was soon under construction.
Four years later, the rebuilt statehouse in Jamestown burned again (in 1698), this time accidentally. The government once again relocated temporarily to Middle Plantation, but now enjoyed use of the College's facilities in addition to the better climate. After that fire, upon suggestion of the students of the College, who made a presentation to the House of Burgesses, the colonial capital was permanently moved to Middle Plantation in 1699. A village was laid out and Middle Plantation was renamed Williamsburg in honor of King William III of England, befitting the town's newly elevated status.

For more details on this topic, see Middle Plantation. 17th century
Following its designation as the Capital of the Colony, immediate provision was made for construction of a capitol building and for platting the new city according to the survey of Theodoric Bland.
Alexander Spotswood, who arrived in Virginia as lieutenant governor in 1710, had several ravines filled and the streets leveled, and assisted in erecting additional college buildings, a church, and a magazine for the storage of arms. In 1722, the town of Williamsburg was granted a royal charter as a city, now believed to be the oldest in the United States.
Williamsburg was the site of the first canal built in the United States. In 1771, Lord Dunmore, Virginia's Royal Governor, announced plans to connect Archer's Creek, which leads to the James River with Queen's Creek, leading to the York River. It would have been a water bridge across the Virginia Peninsula, but was not completed. Portions of the remains of this canal are visible at the rear of the grounds behind the Governor's Palace in Colonial Williamsburg.
The first psychiatric hospital in the United States was built in the city in the 1770s as the, "Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds" (known in modern times as Eastern State Hospital), was established by act of the Virginia colonial legislature on June 4, 1770. The act, which intended to, "Make Provision for the Support and Maintenance of Ideots, Lunaticks, and other Persons of unsound Minds," authorized the House of Burgesses to appoint a fifteen-man Court Of Directors to oversee the future hospital's operations and admissions. In 1771, contractor Benjamin Powell constructed a two-story building on Francis Street near the College capable of housing twenty-four patients. The design of the grounds included "yards for patients to walk and take the Air in" as well as provisions for a fence to be built to keep the patients out of the nearby town.
Beginning in April 1775, the Gunpowder incident of Williamsburg, a dispute between Governor Dunmore and Virginia colonists over gunpowder (stored in the Williamsburg Magazine) evolved into an important event in the run-up to the American Revolution. Dunmore, fearing another rebellion, ordered royal marines to seize gunpowder from the magazine. Virginia militia led by Patrick Henry responded to the "theft" and marched on Williamsburg. A standoff ensued, with Dunmore threatening to destroy the city if attacked by the militia. The dispute was resolved when payment for the powder was arranged.
Following the Declaration of Independence, the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776. During the War, in 1780, the capital of Virginia was moved again, this time to Richmond at the urging of then-Governor Thomas Jefferson, who was afraid that Williamsburg's location made it vulnerable to a British attack. However, during the Revolutionary War many important conventions were held in Williamsburg.

18th Century
With the capitol gone after 1780, Williamsburg also lost prominence, but not to the degree Jamestown had 81 years earlier. 18th and early 19th century transportation in the Colony was largely by canals and navigable rivers. Built deliberately on "high ground," Williamsburg was not located along a major waterway like many early communities in the United States. Early railroads beginning in the 1830s also did not come its way.
It seemed the principal business activities of Williamsburg had been the government and the College, the latter continuing and expanding, as well as the Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds. Both the College and the Hospital grew, with the latter known in recent years as Eastern State Hospital.

19th century
The Williamsburg area saw some activity during the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War (1861-1865), notably the Battle of Williamsburg on May 5, 1862 as General George McClellan's Union forces crept up the Peninsula to lay siege to Richmond. Confederate forces, with earthen Fort Magruder as their only physical base, were successful in delaying the Union forces long enough for the retreating Confederates to reach the outer defenses of Richmond safely. A siege resulted, culminating in the Seven Days Battles, and McClellan's campaign failed. As a result, the War dragged on almost 3 more years at great cost to lives and finances for both sides before the Union was restored in April 1865.

American Civil War
About 20 years later, in 1881, Collis P. Huntington's Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad (C&O) built through the area, eventually establishing six stations in Williamsburg and the surrounding area. This aided passenger travel and shipping for local farmers, but the railroad had been built primarily for through-coal traffic destined for the coal pier and export at Newport News.
Of course, there were the ongoing activities of the College of William and Mary. However, school sessions there were temporarily suspended for financial reasons from 1882 until 1886, when the College became a state school.
Beginning in the 1890s, C&O land agent Carl M. Bergh, a Norwegian-American who had earlier farmed in the mid-western states, realized that the gentler climate of eastern Virginia and depressed post-Civil War land prices would be attractive to his fellow Scandinavians who were farming in other northern parts of the country. He began sending out notices, and selling land. Soon there was a substantial concentration of relocated Americans of Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish descent in the area. The location earlier known as Vaiden's Siding on the railroad just west of Williamsburg in James City County, was renamed Norge. These citizens and their descendants found the area conditions favorable as described by Bergh, and many became leading merchants, tradespersons, and farmers in the community. These transplanted Americans brought some new blood and enthusiasm to the old colonial capitol area.

Post Civil War
Williamsburg was still a sleepy little town in the early 20th century. Some newer structures were interspersed with colonial-era buildings, but the town was much less progressive than other busier communities of similar size in Virginia. Some local lore indicates that the residents were satisfied with it that way, and longtime Virginia Peninsula journalist, author and historian Parke S. Rouse Jr. has pointed this out in his published work. On June 26, 1912, the Richmond Times-Dispatch newspaper ran an editorial which dubbed the town "Lotusburg," for, "Tuesday was election day in Williamsburg but nobody remembered it. The clerk forgot to wake the electoral board, the electoral board could not arouse itself long enough to have the ballots printed, the candidates forgot they were running, the voters forgot they were alive." [1]
However, even if such complacency was common, a dream of one Episcopalian priest was to expand to change Williamsburg's future and provide it a new major purpose, turning much of it into the world's largest living museum. In the early 20th century, one of the largest historic restorations ever undertaken anywhere in the world was championed by the Reverend Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church. Initially, Dr. Goodwin had wanted to save his historic church building, and this he accomplished by 1907, in time for the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Episcopal Church in Virginia. However, upon returning to Williamsburg in 1923 after serving a number of years in upstate New York, he began to realize that many of the other colonial-era buildings also remained, but were in deteriorating condition, and their longevity was at risk.
Goodwin dreamed of a much larger restoration along the lines of what he had accomplished with his historic church. A cleric of modest means, he sought support and financing from a number of sources before successfully drawing the interests and major financial support of Standard Oil heir and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. and his wife Abby Aldrich Rockefeller. The result of their combined efforts was the creation of Colonial Williamsburg, which included a restoration of much of the downtown Williamsburg area with creation of a 301-acre Historic Area to celebrate the patriots and the early history of America.
In the 21st century, Colonial Williamsburg has continued to update and refine its attractions, with more features designed to attract modern children and offer better and additional interpretation of the African-American experience in the colonial town. Just a little more after Dr. Goodwin's work began, the effort to maintain and improve this corner piece of Virginia and United States history remains a remarkable work-in-progress.
In addition to the Historic Area of Colonial Williamsburg, the city's railroad station was restored to become an intermodal passenger facility (see Transportation section below). Nearby in James City County, the old ca. 1908 C&O Railway combination passenger and freight station at Norge was preserved and after donation by CSX Transportation, was relocated in 2006 to property at the Croaker Branch of the Williamsburg Regional Library.
Today, Colonial Williamsburg is Virginia's largest tourist attraction based upon attendance and forms the centerpiece of the Historic Triangle with Jamestown and Yorktown joined by the Colonial Parkway.
See also article Colonial Williamsburg

20th-21st century restoration: Colonial Williamsburg
The third of three debates between Republican President Gerald Ford and Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter was held at Phi Beta Kappa Memorial Hall at the College of William and Mary on October 22, 1976. Perhaps in tribute to the debate's historic venue, as well as to the United States Bicentennial celebration, both candidates spoke of a "new spirit" in America.
The 9th G7 Summit was held in Williamsburg in 1983. The summit participants discussed the growing debt crisis, arms control and greater co-operation between the Soviet Union and the G7 (now the G8). At the end of the meeting, U.S. Secretary of State George P. Shultz read to the press a statement confirming the deployment of American Pershing II-nuclear rockets in West Germany later in 1983.

Geography and climate
Williamsburg is located at 37°16′29″N, 76°42′30″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.5 km² (8.7 mi²). 22.1 km² (8.5 mi²) of it is land and 0.3 km² (0.1 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 1.50% water.
Williamsburg is spread upon a ridge on the peninsula between the James and York Rivers. Queen's Creek and College Creek (called in early days Archer's Hope Creek) partly encircle the city.
The city is located on the I-64 corridor on the Virginia Peninsula, 45 miles southeast of Richmond and approximately 37 miles northwest of Norfolk. It is in the northwest corner of the greater Hampton Roads area, (officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA), which is the 34th largest in the United States, with a total population of 1,576,370. The area includes the Virginia cities of Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Poquoson, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Williamsburg, and the counties of Gloucester, Isle of Wight, James City, Mathews, Surry, and York, as well as the North Carolina county of Currituck. While Virginia Beach is the most populated city within Hampton Roads, it currently functions more as a suburb. The city of Norfolk is recognized as the central business district, while the Virginia Beach seaside resort district and Williamsburg are primarily centers of tourism.

Williamsburg's mild four season climate means outdoor activities can be enjoyed year round. The weather in Williamsburg is temperate and seasonal. Summers are hot and humid with cool evenings. The mean annual temperature is 60 °F (15 °C), with an average annual snowfall of 6 inches and an average annual rainfall of 47 inches. No measurable snow fell in 1999. The wettest seasons are the spring and summer, although rainfall is fairly constant all year round. The highest recorded temperature was 104.0°F (40.0°C) on June 26, 1952 and August 22, 1983. The lowest recorded temperature was -7.0°F (-21.6°C) on January 21, 1985.

As of the census of 2000, there are 11,998 people, 3,619 households, and 1,787 families residing in the city. The population density is 542.4/km² (1,404.1/mi²). There are 3,880 housing units at an average density of 175.4/km² (454.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 79.54% White, 13.34% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 4.58% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.75% from other races, and 1.47% from two or more races. 2.52% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 3,619 households out of which 16.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.2% are married couples living together, 9.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 50.6% are non-families. 35.9% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.07 and the average family size is 2.66.
The age distribution, which is heavily influenced by the College of William and Mary, is: 9.6% under the age of 18, 46.0% from 18 to 24, 17.7% from 25 to 44, 15.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 23 years. For every 100 females there are 81.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 80.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $37,093, and the median income for a family is $52,358. Males have a median income of $28,625 versus $26,840 for females. The per capita income for the city is $18,483. 18.3% of the population and 9.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 29.7% of those under the age of 18 and 5.5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Williamsburg is notable for the fact that a high proportion of city residents derive a significant percentage of their annual income from investment sources, either in addition to or in lieu of income from work. This is because many retirees relocate to Williamsburg, who typically draw income from investments such as 401(k) plans and the like (see also retirement community).

The tourist volume of Colonial Williamsburg has attracted many other related businesses to the area. Notable among these was Anheuser-Busch, which established large operations in James City County and York County just outside the city. The company operates a large brewery there, and a subsidiary of the company operates two of its theme parks near the brewery, Busch Gardens Europe, and Water Country USA. Anheuser-Busch's subsidiary Busch Properties also operates a commerce park, McLaw's Circle, and Kingsmill on the James a gated residential neighborhood that contains a resort of the same name.


The major daily newspaper in Williamsburg is the Daily Press, published in nearby Newport News. The Virginia Gazette is a bi-weekly, local newspaper, published in Williamsburg, and is the first newspaper paper to be published south of the Potomac River, starting in 1736. Its publisher was William Parks, who had similar ventures in Maryland.
Williamsburg is served by the Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News designated market area (DMA), which is the forty-second largest in the U.S. with 712,790 homes (0.64% of the total U.S.).

Williamsburg is perhaps best known for its tourist and historical points of interest, the centerpiece of which is Colonial Williamsburg, which is essentially a living history museum, depicting the lifestyles and culture of the 18th Century colonial period in American history. Major points of interest in this historic district include the Virginia's first capitol building, the Governor's Palace, Bruton Parish Church (the oldest continually-operating church in the United States), and the College of William and Mary.
Other highlights in the city include The Williamsburg Winery (Virginia's largest winery), the Williamsburg Botanical Garden, and the National Center for State Courts. Also located in Williamsburg are two major theme parks, Busch Gardens Europe and Water Country USA, as well as Go-Karts Plus action park and 2 miniature golf courses. The enormous 200-acre Williamsburg Pottery Factory shopping complex visited by 3 million people annually is located at nearby Lightfoot, VA. High-quality artistic and ornamental items are sold at the Market Square shops adjacent to the colonial area, and at many stores on Richmond Road, including 3 "Christmas shops". Richmond Road also has an outlet shopping center of various discounted famous name brand apparels. President's Park is a new educational attraction displaying outdoor statue heads of all 43 Presidents, each one accompanied by a descriptive biographical plaque.

Williamsburg, Virginia Museums and other points of interest

The independent city has operated under the council-manager form of government since 1932. The governing body is composed of public-spirited citizens serving on a part-time basis to decide major policy issues. The Mayor is elected by the city council, and presides over council meetings and served as the Chief Elected Official for the city. The city council consists of five members that serve staggered, four-year terms. A city manager is hired by the city council, and is comparable to a corporation's chief executive officer. This person is usually a professionally-trained public administrator, who is charged with implementing the policies and directives of the city council, and has broad administrative authority with strict rules prohibiting political interference in administrative matters.
As of 2007, the current Mayor of the city of Williamsburg is Jeanne Zeidler (daughter of former Milwaukee mayor Frank P. Zeidler), and the Vice Mayor is Clyde A. Haulman. Other members of the city council are Paul Freiling, Bobby Braxton, and Mickey Chohany. The current city manager is Jackson C. Tuttle.
The city shares constitutional officers, courts, and the Williamsburg-James City County Public Schools system (WJCC) with adjacent James City County, and is the county seat.
As a college town, Williamsburg's large student population has also resulted in a few conflicts with the local city government. For example, in addressing concerns of property values and noise complaints near the campus, the council has undertaken initiatives to reduce student off-campus residential presence in the city by instituting a maximum occupancy rule of three-unrelated persons for single-family dwellings,


The public school system is jointly operated by the city of Williamsburg and James City County. The Williamsburg-James City County Public Schools system (known informally as "WJCC") consists approximately 9,000 students in 12 schools, of which there are 7 elementary schools, 3 middle schools, and 2 high schools. Within the county's boundaries, the two high schools, Lafayette and Jamestown, are considered above average institutions. A third high school, to be named Warhill High School, is under construction in the Lightfoot area. It and an eighth elementary school, to be named Matoaka Elementary School, are scheduled to open in the fall of 2007.
James River Elementary School, located in the Grove Community in the county's southeastern end, is a magnet school. It offers the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme, one of only five such schools Virginia to do so.
For the 2001-2002 academic year, the public school system was ranked among the top five school systems in the Commonwealth of Virginia and in the top 15% nationwide by Expansion Management Magazine. There are also two regional Governor's Schools in the area that serve gifted and talented students.

Elementary and secondary public schools
The city has also been the home to the College of William and Mary since its founding in 1693, making it America's second oldest college (behind Harvard University). Technically a university, the College of William and Mary was also the first U.S. institution to have a Royal Charter, and the only one to have coat-of-arms from the College of Arms in London. The College campus closely adjoins the Historic District, and the Wren Building of the College at the head of Duke of Gloucester Street was one of the earliest restored by the efforts of Reverend Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin and the family of John D. Rockefeller Jr. as they began creating what is now commonly known as Colonial Williamsburg. Over 70% of the students of the College either work part-time or serve as volunteers in the community. Students contribute over 300,000 hours of volunteer service to the Williamsburg community annually.
Six other Universities are located within a one-hour drive of the city, including Christopher Newport University (Newport News), Old Dominion University (Norfolk), Hampton University (Hampton), Virginia Commonwealth University (Richmond), the University of Richmond (Richmond) and Virginia Union University (Richmond).
There are also three community colleges, offering associate degrees and college transfer programs, within a twenty-five mile radius of Williamsburg: Thomas Nelson Community College, Paul D. Camp Community College, and Rappahannock Community College. A branch of Thomas Nelson Community College is located just east of the city limits in James City County.

Higher education

Williamsburg is served by the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport, in nearby Newport News, approximately 20 miles distant.
The Norfolk International Airport and Richmond International Airport, each located about 55 miles away via Interstate highways, are larger and offer considerably more flights. Williamsburg is roughly equidistant from these two airports. However, due to traffic concerns in crossing the harbor of Hampton Roads, the Richmond airport is often a shorter driving time away.
The Williamsburg-Jamestown Airport is a small general aviation airport located 3 miles southwest of Williamsburg, that provides air transport for private and small business jets.

Williamsburg is located adjacent to Interstate 64 which parallels U.S. Route 60 and runs east-west in the area. State Route 199, officially named the Humelsine Parkway, surrounds the city in a semicircle. State Route 5 links the city with the James River Plantations along the north shore of the James River, Interstate 295 and Richmond. State Route 31 links the city to Jamestown and the toll-free Jamestown Ferry.
The Colonial Parkway provides a bucolic low-speed link between the points of the Historic Triangle which in addition to Colonial Williamsburg, includes Jamestown and Yorktown. It passes under the "Restored Area" in a tunnel. With the exception of buses, commercial vehicles are not allowed on the Parkway.
In the "restored" or Historic Area, motorized traffic is not allowed on Duke of Gloucester Street, helping visitors to gain a perspective of what life was really like transportation-wise in the colonial days (before the invention of the automobile). There are bus stops and some parking areas located conveniently nearby, however. The only exceptions to this are for residents living in the historic area, and members of Bruton Parish Church, who have limited access and parking on Sundays.

Williamsburg, Virginia Highways
See also: Williamsburg (Amtrak station)
Unlike many U.S. destinations, Williamsburg offers good non-automobile driving alternatives for visitors and citizens. The area has both a central intermodal transportation center and a public transit bus system. The transportation center affords easy access to the Colonial Williamsburg Visitor's Center and is located near the downtown and restored areas and the College of William and Mary.
The Williamsburg Transportation Center itself is a restored building which is a former Chesapeake and Ohio Railway station now owned by Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. It is served by several Amtrak trains a day, with direct service to Newport News, Richmond, and points along the Northeast Corridor from Washington DC through New York City to Boston. Intercity bus service is provided by Greyhound Lines (Carolina Trailways) and Hampton Roads Transit (HRT).
The center also offers several modes of local transportation. Williamsburg Area Transport (WAT) uses the center as a transfer hub for its network of handicapped accessible transit bus routes serving the city, James City County, and most portions of York County adjacent to the Williamsburg area, with hourly service 6 days a week during daytime and evening hours. Taxicabs and rental cars are also based at the transportation center.

Local bus services: WAT, CW, and W&M

Colonial Williamsburg
Hampton Roads
Virginia Peninsula
The Williamsburg Winery