Sunday, September 30, 2007

Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. In particular, the term refers to the common Old Testament/Tanakh (which is a basis of both moral traditions, including particularly the Ten Commandments); and implies a common set of values present in the modern Western World.
Compare with Ebionites and Judaizers.

Judeo-Christian Historical background
The first-known uses of the terms "Judæo-Christian" and "Judaeo-Christianity", according to the Oxford English Dictionary, are 1899 and 1910 respectively, but both were discussing the emergence of Christianity from Judaism. The term was first used with its current meaning in 1938, and was then used during World War II[3] to as an alternative to using the term 'Christian civilization' in light of Hitler's attacks on Jews and Judaism. Some argue that the term was invented in the United States in an attempt to create a non-denominational religious consensus or civil religion that, by embracing Judaism, avoided the appearance of anti-Semitism.
The term is now commonly used in popular culture as a shorthand for the predominant religious influences upon Western culture.

Etymological background
Supporters of the Judaeo-Christian concept point to the Christian claim that Christianity is the heir to Biblical Judaism, and that the whole logic of Christianity as a religion is that it exists (only) as a religion built upon Judaism. In addition, although the order of the books in the Christian Old Testament and the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) is different, the books are the same. The majority of the Old Testament is in fact Jewish scripture, and is used as moral and spiritual teaching material throughout the Christian world. The prophets, patriarchs, and heroes of the Jewish scripture are also known in Christianity, and unlike Islam which uses their identities but changes their actions and lives, Christianity uses the Jewish text as the basis for its understanding of Judaeo-Christian patriarchs, prophets and heroes such as Abraham, Elijah and Moses. As a result a vast chunk of Jewish and Christian teaching is based on the same inspiration.

Judeo-Christian Basis of a common concept of the two religions
In the legal case of Marsh v. Chambers, 463 U.S. 783 (1983), the Supreme Court of the United States held that a state legislature could constitutionally have a paid chaplain conduct legislative prayers "in the Judeo-Christian tradition." In Simpson v. Chesterfield County Board of Supervisors, No. 04-1045 (4th Cir. 2005), the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals held that the Supreme Court's holding in the Marsh case permitting legislative bodies to conduct prayer in the "Chesterfield County could constitutionally exclude Cynthia Simpson, a Wiccan priestess, from leading its legislative prayers, because her faith was not "in the Judeo-Christian tradition." Chesterfield County's Board included Jewish, Christian, and Muslim clergy in its invited list.

See also

Abrahamic religions — an umbrella term used to refer to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as well as sometimes indicating smaller, related religions such as Baha'i Faith and Samaritans .
Christo-Islamic — term used to refer to common elements in Christianity and Islam
Judeo-Christo-Islamic — a term used to describe common elements in Judaism, Christianity and Islam; this is normally called Abrahamic.
Judeo-Islamic — term used to refer to the common cultural elements and backgrounds of the two religions

Saturday, September 29, 2007

Lists of English words of international origin
"We don't just borrow words. On occasion, English has pursued other languages down alleyways to beat them unconscious and rifle their pockets for new vocabulary". (James D. Nicoll)
These are lists of words in the English language which are known as "loanwords" or "borrowings," which are derived from other languages:

List of English words of Australian Aboriginal origin
List of English words of African origin
List of English words of Afrikaans origin
List of English words of Arabic origin
List of English words of Chinese origin
List of English words of Czech origin
List of English words of Dutch origin
List of English words of Etruscan origin
List of English words of Finnish origin
List of English words of French origin
List of German expressions in English (a small German-English dictionary)
English words of Greek origin (a discussion rather than a list)

  • List of Greek words with English derivatives
    List of English words of Hawaiian origin
    List of English words of Hebrew origin
    List of English words of Hungarian origin
    List of English words of Indian origin

    • List of English words of Sanskrit origin
      List of English words of Tamil origin
      List of English words of Hindi origin
      List of English words of Urdu origin
      List of English words of Telugu origin
      List of English words of Indonesian origin, including from Javanese, Malay (Sumatran) Sundanese, Papuan (Irian Jaya), Balinese, Dayak and other local languages in Indonesia
      List of English words of Irish origin
      List of English words of Italian origin
      List of English words of Japanese origin
      List of English words of Korean origin
      List of English words of Latin origin

      • List of Latin words with English derivatives
        List of English words of Malay origin
        List of English words of Maori origin
        List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas
        List of English words of Norwegian origin
        List of English words of Old Norse origin (often coming from Vikings from Denmark or Norway, but at the time there was little distinction between the Old Norse dialects spoken in the three Scandinavian countries.)
        List of English words of Persian origin
        List of English words of Polish origin
        List of English words of Portuguese origin
        List of English words of Romanian origin
        List of English words of Russian origin
        List of English words of Serbo-Croatian origin
        List of English words of Slovak origin
        List of English words of Scots origin
        List of English words of Scottish Gaelic origin
        List of English words of Spanish origin
        List of English words of Swedish origin
        List of English words of Tagalog origin
        List of English words of Turkic origin
        List of English words of Ukrainian origin
        List of English words of Welsh origin
        List of English words of Yiddish origin

Friday, September 28, 2007

September 20 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Sep. 19 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - Sep. 21
All fixed commemorations below celebrated on Oct. 3 by Old Calendarists

Thursday, September 27, 2007

U-2 Crisis of 1960 Event
Four days after Powers disappeared, NASA issued a very detailed press release noting that an aircraft had "gone missing" north of Turkey.

U-2 Crisis of 1960 Aftermath

Lockheed U–2
Hainan Island incident

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

KLKN, channel 8, is the ABC affiliate in Lincoln, Nebraska. It is owned by Citadel Communications (not related to the larger Citadel Broadcasting).

KLKN Tower History

Morning Show/Midday Anchors

Rod Fowler (Anchor)
Lauren Silverman (Anchor)
Kevin Coskren (Chief Meteorologist)
Jon Wofford (Sports Director) Weekend Anchors

Audra Ensign
Meghan Youker (Producer/Reporter)
Melissa Fry
Erika Summers
Jon Jordan
Ashley Larson (newest reporter)
Rielle Creighton (newest reporter)

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, also known as the bull whaler, Zambezi shark or colloquially Zambi in Africa and Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is common worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers. The bull shark is well-known for its unpredictable, often aggressive behavior.
Unlike other marine sharks, bull sharks tolerate fresh water. They can travel far up rivers. As a result, they are probably responsible for the majority of attacks on humans that take place near the shore, including many attacks attributed to other species. However, bull sharks are not true freshwater sharks (unlike the river sharks of the genus Glyphis).

The bull shark is found all over the world in many different areas. The bull shark has been known to travel long distances. The bull shark is common in the coastal areas of warm oceans, in rivers and lakes, and in both salt and fresh water. They are found to a depth of 150 m, but does not usually swim deeper than 30 m.
Until very recently, researchers thought the sharks in Lake Nicaragua were a separate species because there was no way for the sharks to move in or out. It was discovered that they were jumping along the rapids just like salmon. Bull sharks tagged inside the lake were later caught in the open ocean.[1]

Distribution and habitat
Bull sharks are large and stout. Males can reach 2.1 metres (6.9 ft) and weigh 90 kilograms (198.4 lb). Females can be much larger: 3.3 metres (10.8 ft) and 318 kg (700 lb). Bull sharks are wider than other sharks of comparable length, and are grey on top and white below. The second dorsal fin is smaller than the first.

Bull shark Diet
Bull sharks are solitary hunters..
Many experts think the bull shark is responsible for most of the deaths around the Sydney Harbour inlets in the past. Most of these attacks were previously thought to be great whites. In India the bull shark cruises up the Ganges River where it has killed and attacked a large number of people. It also eats the corpses that the Indians float on the river. Many of these attacks have been wrongly blamed on the Ganges Shark Glyphis gangeticus, a fairly rare species that is probably the only other shark that can live comfortably in both saltwater and freshwater. The grey nurse shark was also blamed in the sixties and seventies.


List of sharks
List of fatal, unprovoked shark attacks in the United States by decade.

Monday, September 24, 2007

Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
Johnson was a U.S. Senator from Greeneville, Tennessee at the time of the secession of the southern states. He was the only Southern Senator not to quit his post upon secession, and became the most prominent War Democrat from the South. In 1862 Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of Tennessee, where he proved energetic and effective in fighting the rebellion. Johnson was nominated for the Vice President slot in 1864 on the National Union Party ticket. He was elected along with Abraham Lincoln in November 1864, and he became president upon Lincoln's assassination on April 15, 1865. As president he took charge of Presidential Reconstruction — the first phase of Reconstruction — which lasted until the Radical Republicans gained control of Congress in the 1866 elections. His conciliatory policies towards the South, his hurry to reincorporate the former Confederates back into the union, and his vetoes of civil rights bills embroiled him in a bitter dispute with the Radical Republicans. The Radicals in the House of Representatives impeached him in 1868, and he was acquitted by a single vote in the Senate, that of Edmund G. Ross. He was the first U.S. President to be impeached.

Andrew Johnson Early life
Johnson served as an alderman in Greeneville from 1828 to 1830 and mayor of Greeneville from 1830 to 1833. As a Whig he was elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives.

Early political career
Johnson was elected governor of Tennessee, serving from 1853 to 1857, and was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from October 8, 1857 to March 4, 1862. He was chairman of the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expense (Thirty-sixth Congress). Before Tennessee voted on secession, Johnson toured the state speaking in opposition to the act, which he said was unconstitutional. Johnson was an aggressive stump speaker and often responded to hecklers, even if those hecklers were in the senate. At the time of secession of the Confederacy, Johnson was the only Senator from the seceded states to continue participation in Congress. Johnson was then appointed by President Abraham Lincoln as military governor of Tennessee in 1862. He vigorously suppressed the Confederates and spoke out for black suffrage, arguing, "The better class of them will go to work and sustain themselves, and that class ought to be allowed to vote, on the ground that a loyal negro is more worthy than a disloyal white man."

Andrew Johnson Political ascendancy
As a leading War Democrat and pro-Union southerner, Johnson was an ideal candidate for the Republicans in 1864 as they enlarged their base to include War Democrats and changed the party name to the National Union Party. He was elected Vice President of the United States and was inaugurated March 4, 1865. At the ceremony, Johnson, who had been drinking (he explained later) to offset the pain of typhoid fever, gave a rambling speech and appeared intoxicated to many. In early 1865, Johnson talked harshly of hanging traitors like Jefferson Davis, which endeared him to the Radicals.

Vice Presidency

Main article: Abraham Lincoln assassination Lincoln assassination
Johnson was sworn in as President of the United States on April 15, 1865, upon the death of Lincoln that morning. He was the first Vice President to succeed to the U.S. Presidency upon the assassination of a President and the third to succeed upon the death of a President.
Johnson had an ambiguous party status. He attempted to build up a party of loyalists under the National Union label, but he did not identify with either of the two main parties while President—though he did try for the Democratic nomination in 1868. Asked in 1868 why he did not become a Democrat, he said "It is true I am asked why don't I join the Democratic party. Why don't they join me...if I have administered the office of president so well?"

Presidency 1865–1869
Johnson forced the French out of Mexico by sending a combat army to the border and issuing an ultimatum. The French withdrew in 1867, and their puppet government quickly collapsed. Secretary of State Seward negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia on April 9, 1867 for $7.2 Million. Critics sneered at "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox" and "Icebergia." Seward also negotiated to purchase the Danish West Indies, but the Senate refused to approve the purchase in 1867 (it eventually took place in 1917). The Senate likewise rejected Seward's arrangement with the United Kingdom to arbitrate the Alabama Claims.
The U.S. experienced tense relations with the United Kingdom and its colonial government in Canada in the aftermath of the war. Lingering resentment over a perception of British sympathy towards the Confederacy resulted in Johnson initially turning a blind eye towards a series of armed incursions by Irish-American civil war veterans into British territory in Canada, named the Fenian Raids. Eventually Johnson ordered the Fenians disarmed and barred from crossing the border, but his initially hesitant reaction to the crisis helped motivate the movement toward Canadian Confederation.

Foreign policy
At first Johnson talked harshly, telling an Indiana delegation in late April, 1865, "Treason must be made odious... traitors must be punished and impoverished... their social power must be destroyed." But then he struck another note: "I say, as to the leaders, punishment. I also say leniency, reconciliation and amnesty to the thousands whom they have misled and deceived." Johnson in practice was not at all harsh toward the Confederate leaders. He allowed the Southern states to hold elections in 1865 in which prominent ex-Confederates were elected to the U.S. Congress; however, Congress did not seat them. Congress and Johnson argued in an increasingly public way about Reconstruction and the manner in which the Southern secessionist states would be readmitted to the Union. Johnson favored a very quick restoration, similar to the plan of leniency that Lincoln advocated before his death.

Break with the Republicans: 1866

There were two attempts to remove President Andrew Johnson from office. The first occurred in the fall of 1867. On November 21st of that year, the House Judiciary committee produced a bill of impeachment that was basically a vast collection of complaints against him. After a furious debate, there was a formal vote in the House of Representatives on December 5th, which failed 108-57.

First attempt

Main article: Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Second attempt
One of Johnson's last significant acts was granting unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on Christmas Day, December 25, 1868. This was after the election of U.S. Grant to succeed him, but before Grant took office in March, 1869. Earlier amnesties requiring signed oaths and excluding certain classes of people were issued both by Lincoln and by Johnson.

Christmas Day amnesty for Confederates

Administration and Cabinet

Nebraska - March 1, 1867 States admitted to the Union
Johnson was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate from Tennessee in 1868 and to the House of Representatives in 1872. However, in 1874 the Tennessee legislature did elect him to the U.S. Senate. Johnson served from March 4, 1875, until his death from a stroke near Elizabethton, Tennessee, on July 31 that same year. In his first speech since returning to the Senate, which was also his last, Johnson denounced the corruptions of the Grant Administration and his passions aroused a standing ovation from many of his fellow senators who had once voted to remove him from the presidency. He is the only President to serve in the Senate after his presidency.
Interment was in the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery, Greeneville, Tennessee, where he was buried with a copy of the Constitution. Andrew Johnson National Cemetery is now part of the Andrew Johnson National Historic Site.

Historians have gone through cycles on Johnson. The Dunning School of the early 20th century saw him as a heroic bulwark against the corruption of the Radical Republicans who tried to remove the entire leadership class of the white South. Johnson seemed to be the legitimate heir of the sainted Abraham Lincoln. By the 1930s a series of favorable biographies enhanced his prestige.
Johnson's most important foreign policy action was the purchase of Alaska from Russia (the future Soviet Union), which would prove vital to national security later during the Cold War. The idea and implementation is credited to Seward as Secretary of State, but Johnson approved the plan. It should be remembered that gold was not discovered in Alaska until 1880, thirteen years after the purchase and five years after Johnson's death, and that oil was not discovered until 1968.

Historians' changing view of Andrew Johnson

United States presidential election, 1864
History of the United States (1865-1918)
Tennessee Johnson See also

Howard K. Beale, The Critical Year. A Study of Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1930). ISBN 0-8044-1085-2
Michael Les Benedict, The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1999). ISBN 0-393-31982-2 online edition
Albert E. Castel, The Presidency of Andrew Johnson (1979). ISBN 0-7006-0190-2
D. M. DeWitt, The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1903).
W. A. Dunning, Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York, 1898) online edition
W. A. Dunning, Reconstruction, Political and Economic (New York, 1907) online edition
Foster, G. Allen, Impeached: The President who almost lost his job (New York, 1964).
Eric L. McKitrick, Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1961). ISBN 0-19-505707-4
Martin E. Mantell; Johnson, Grant, and the Politics of Reconstruction (1973) online edition
Hatfield, Mark O, with the Senate Historical Office, Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789-1993.(Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997), p.219
Howard Means, The Avenger Takes His Place: Andrew Johnson and the 45 Days That Changed the Nation (New York, 2006)
Milton; George Fort. The Age of Hate: Andrew Johnson and the Radicals (1930) online edition
Patton; James Welch. Unionism and Reconstruction in Tennessee, 1860–1869 (1934) online edition
Rhodes; James Ford History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 6. 1920. Pulitzer prize. online edition
Schouler, James. History of the United States of America: Under the Constitution vol. 7. 1865–1877. The Reconstruction Period (1917) online edition
Lloyd P. Stryker, Andrew Johnson: A Study in Courage (1929). ISBN 0-403-01231-7 online edition
Trefousse, Hans L. Andrew Johnson: A Biography (1989). ISBN 0-393-31742-0 online edition
Winston; Robert W. Andrew Johnson: Plebeian and Patriot (1928) online edition Primary sources

Sunday, September 23, 2007

Early life

Engelbert Kaempfer Travels
In 1681 he visited Uppsala in Sweden, where he was offered inducements to settle; but his desire for foreign travel led him to become secretary to the embassy which Charles XI sent through Russia to Persia in 1683. He reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad in Dagestan after a voyage in the Caspian Sea; from Shemakha in Shirvan he made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern scientist to visit these fields of eternal fire. In 1684 he arrived in Isfahan, then the Persian capital. When after a stay of more than a year the Swedish embassy prepared to return, Kaempfer joined the fleet of the Dutch East India Company in the Persian Gulf as chief surgeon, and in spite of fever caught at Bander Abbasi he found opportunity to see something of Arabia and of many of the western coast-lands of India.

At Kaempfer's death his mostly unpublished manuscripts were purchased by Sir Hans Sloane, and conveyed to England. Among them was a History of Japan, translated from the manuscript into English by J.G. Scheuchzer and published at London, in 2 vols., in 1727. The original German has never been published, the extant German version being taken from the English. Besides Japanese history, this book contains a description of the political, social and physical state of the country in the 17th century. For upwards of a hundred years it remained the chief source of information for the general reader, and is still not wholly obsolete. A life of the author is prefixed to the History. Kaempfer's original manuscripts are currently kept in the British Museum.

Saturday, September 22, 2007

WITI is a Fox network owned-and-operated television station (O&O) located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Its signal covers most of southeastern Wisconsin including the cities of Racine, Kenosha, Sheboygan and Waukesha. Its transmitter is located in Shorewood, Wisconsin. The station is the only major network O&O in the Milwaukee market. On June 13, 2007, Fox's parent company, News Corporation, announced its intention to sell the station, along with eight other owned and operated stations.[1]

WITI History
WITI, being a Fox O&O, airs a great deal of programming from Twentieth Television, including sitcoms (such as Malcolm in the Middle), court shows (like Divorce Court and Christina's Court), The Dr. Keith Ablow Show and reality programming (like COPS). WITI double-runs Judge Judy and Judge Joe Brown in the afternoons, and Seinfeld before Fox prime time and in late night. The station airs many of Twentieth's series under test runs before they go into national syndication for non-Fox stations, including Texas Justice, A Current Affair, Good Day Live, Geraldo at Large, and currently Fox's mid-morning The Morning Show with Mike and Juliet. The station also airs American Idol Rewind on weekends.
WITI has also aired episodes of M*A*S*H since the 1977 CBS/ABC affiliation switch, first within its CBS series run and then on into syndication WISN-TV channel 12 originally aired syndicated M*A*S*H reruns at 5 pm and 10:30 pm and then later at 11 PM along with other varied time periods when M*A*S*H originally sold in syndicated. WITI gained syndication rights to the show in the 1990s after a long and successful run on WISN. At the time when WITI was a ABC affiliate, in the early 1970s they pre-empted The Dick Cavett Show in favor of old movies, it was shown instead on WVTV-TV when it was a independent station at the time, also they pre-empted All My Children in favor of the noon news.
As was the case with many of the stations acquired from New World, WITI has never aired Fox's children's block in either the Fox Kids or the current 4Kids TV iterations. The block stayed with WCGV for ten years after WITI took the Fox affiliation and in September 2004 moved to independent station WMLW-CA channel 41.
The station celebrated 50 years on the air in 2006, with promotions showing the station's history throughout the year which started airing on New Year's Day, along with a 50th anniversary special during the May sweeps period. They also aired the December 21 NFL Network Packer/Viking game locally [3].

Since Channel 6 became a Fox O&O, the station has put more emphasis on its local newscasts, and currently runs at least forty hours of news a week. The station's newscasts usually place a strong third behind WTMJ and WISN (both of whom fight it out for first place), though the morning newscast (Fox 6 Wakeup News) is very competitive with the national network shows, and occasionally comes in first in the ratings because of the program's local focus. The station is also one of the few Fox O&O stations to have a newscast at 10pm in the Central and Mountain time zones, with KSAZ in Phoenix, KMSP in Minneapolis/St. Paul, WDAF in Kansas City, WBRC in Birmingham and KDFW in Dallas-Ft. Worth, with WFLD in Chicago recently inaugurating a 10pm show. WTVT in Tampa and WTTG in Washington, D.C. is experimenting with a newscast in the Eastern Time Zone equivalent timeslot of 11pm.
WITI also takes advantage of the fact that the audio for Channel 6 can be heard on an FM radio on 87.7 FM, mentioning often during their morning newscasts, station promotions and breaking news events that you can 'Listen to Fox 6 in your car'.


Mark Concannon (Weekdays on Wake-Up)
Katrina Cravy (Monday-Thursday at 6:00, 9:00; Sunday at 5:00, 9:00, 10:00)
Chris Goodman (Saturdays at 6:00, 9:00, 10:00)
Chrystina Head (Saturdays at 6:00, 9:00, 10:00)
Brad Hicks (Monday-Thursday at 6:00, 9:00; Friday at 5:00, 6:00, 9:00, 10:00)
Tami Hughes (Weekends on Wake-Up)
Nicole Koglin (Weekdays on Wake-Up)
Kim Murphy (Weekdays on Wake-Up)
Ted Perry (Monday-Thursday at 5:00, 10:00; Sunday at 5:00, 9:00, 10:00)
Beverly Taylor (Monday-Thursday at 5:00, 10:00; Friday at 5:00, 6:00, 9:00, 10:00)
Joanne Williams (Weekdays at Noon)
Justin Williams (Weekends on Wake-Up) Anchors

Mike Bartley (forced out in 2000, now at WQED Pittsburgh as host of OnQ)
Joyce Garbaciak (stepped down in 2005, now a features reporter/anchor at WISN (Channel 12))
Vince Gibbens (died in 1995)
Carl Zimmermann (1959-1986, retired)
Stu Armstrong (1956-1959) Past anchors

Vince Condella (Chief Meteorologist, Weekday Evenings)
Bart Adrian (Weekend Evenings)
Rob Haswell (Weekdays on Wake-Up and Noon) WITI Meteorologists

Tom Skilling (Now at WGN-TV Chicago)
Scott Steele (Known for having his dog Spunky with him when he did the weather in the morning on Wake-Up. Now does the weather on weekends on Today's TMJ4 Milwaukee)
Eric Braate, now at KPRC-TV Past meteorologists

Jen Lada
Tom Pipines
Tim Van Vooren Sports

Cynthia Kaump
Peter Linton Smith
Bob Moore (Also fills in for Meteorologists)
Cathy Orosz
Renee Banot
Katrina Cravy (Contact 6)
Julie Feldman (Health Center)
Gus Gnorski (The Gus Tour weekdays on Wake-Up [Visits various places in the Greater Milwaukee Area or Upcoming Fairs], station announcer, host of Saturday morning DIY show Ask Gus)
Bryan Polcyn (Investigative Reporter)
Jennifer Reyes (Helicopter Reporter)
Jeremy Ross
Myra Sanchick
Wendy Strong (Business Journal)
Vivika Vergara

Friday, September 21, 2007

Kevin Crease
Kevin Crease (8 May 1936 - 10 April 2007) was a South Australian television presenter and newsreader. He was most noted for presenting South Australian edition of the Nine Network's National Nine News with Rob Kelvin between 1987 and 2007.
Born in North Adelaide and raised in the working class seaside suburb of Semaphore, Crease was the eldest of four children. He was a prodigious public speaker from a young age and won the Year 7 senior school debating championship.
He started his working life as a clerical worker in 1952 with Shell before becoming a copy boy and later cadet at Adelaide's The News newspaper, where he quickly 'fell foul of the chief-of-staff' and was sacked. Crease then completed his national service, but was kicked out of the army following an incident where he used an armoured car to attend a party with his girlfriend.
Crease started his radio career at radio station 5DN in 1957 after being noticed as a spruiker selling plastic raincoats in Adelaide's city streets. On 17 July 1959, Channel 9 began its first broadcast in Adelaide. Crease was chosen to compere the station's first program - Clarkson's TV Hostess Quest. During the 1960s, he worked on a variety of different projects, from reading commercials and news, to performing on Adelaide Tonight as compere from 1962 until 1975. In 1969, he accidentally became the first on-air personality to say "fuck" on Australian television when he said "fucking hell" after a late-night mishap. In the early 1970s, he hosted the news program News Beat.
From 1975 to 1977, Crease was then Premier Don Dunstan's press secretary before returning to television. He went on to present news for ADS-7 (confusingly part of the Ten Network; this change was reflected in the renaming of the station in 1987) from 1977 to 1987. Crease returned to Channel 9 in April 1987 as presenter for National Nine News with Rob Kelvin.
On February 9, 2007, co-presenter Rob Kelvin announced that Crease was going through a serious health issue and was taking extended leave from presenting. It was revealed on March 17, 2007 on National Nine News that he was suffering from a 'serious form of cancer'. The Sunday Mail reported the following day that Crease would be retiring from television broadcasting.

Thursday, September 20, 2007

This page is currently protected from editing until September 26, 2007 (UTC) or until disputes have been resolved. Protection is not an endorsement of the current version (protection log). Please discuss changes on the talk page or request unprotection. You may use {{editprotected}} on the talk page to ask for an administrator to make an edit for you.
Research Test dataRace and intelligence Explanations Interpretations
Utility of research Potential for bias
The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. This study seeks to identify and explain the differences in manifestations of intelligence (e.g. IQ testing results), as well as the underlying causes of such variance.
Theories about the possibility of a relationship between race and intelligence have been the subject of speculation and debate since the 16th century.

Indians were seen as a homogeneous group of savages despite the fact that individual groups varied extensively and had several well developed social systems. Black people were also portrayed as savage, uncivilized and having low intelligence. By creating these social constructs, expansion into North America was justified.
"What of the latest currents of thought? Are they likely to lead to, or at least encourage, further distortions of social policy? The indications are not all encouraging. Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray published a book in 1994 clearly directed at policy, just as Jensen and others had in the 1960s and 1970s. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life (New York: Free Press, 1994) teamed a psychologist with a conservative policy advocate to try to prove that both the class structure and the racial divide in the United States result from genetically determined differences in intelligence and ability."
"Their general assertions about genes and IQ were not very controversial, but their speculations on race were something else again."
"Also in the 1990s, Phillipe Rushton has tried to couch racial differences in IQ in a theory drawn from evolutionary biology. This theory takes the concepts of r and K selection, crudely useful when applied to a vast range of living creatures considered on a continuum, and apply it to subtle differences in skull form, mental test results, and sexual behavior within our one species. This theory has no academic legitimacy and little relationship to real evolutionary theory, but it taints the whole Darwinian enterprise, strongly recalling the "scientific anthropology" of the era of slavery."
"The reality is quite different. As argued by George Armelagos in his Presidential Address to the American Association of Physical Anthropologists ("Race, Reason and Rationale," Evolutionary Anthropology 4, 1995, pp. 103–109) race itself is a dubious concept for the human species. Obviously it is sociologically meaningful, but even in the social realm it is a constantly moving target with little or no core biological legitimacy."The Tangled Wing Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit Times Books Pub: 2002 ISBN 0-7167-4602-6

Main article: Race and intelligence (References)

Wednesday, September 19, 2007

Brooklyn Heights
Coordinates: 40.699804°′N, 73.99395°′W
Brooklyn Heights is a neighborhood within the New York City borough of Brooklyn; originally designated through popular reference as 'Brooklyn Village', it has, since 1834, become a prominent area of the Brooklyn borough. As of 2000, the Brooklyn Heights sustained a population of 22,493 people. The neighborhood is part of Brooklyn Community Board 2.
Brooklyn Heights stretches from Fulton Street near the Brooklyn Bridge south to Atlantic Avenue and from the East River east to Court Street and Cadman Plaza. Adjacent neighborhoods are: DUMBO, Downtown Brooklyn, Cobble Hill and Boerum Hill. It is directly across the East River from Manhattan, and easily accessible to Downtown and multiple subway lines.
The area was heavily fortified prior to the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War - The Battle of Long Island (also known as The Battle of Brooklyn). After British troops landed on Long Island and advanced towards Continental Army lines, General George Washington withdrew his troops here after heavy losses, but was able to make a skillful retreat across the East River to Manhattan without the loss of any troops or his remaining supplies.
Brooklyn Heights occupies a bluff that rises sharply from the river's edge and gradually recedes on the landward side. Before the Dutch settled on Long Island in the middle of the seventeenth century, this promontory was called Ihpetonga ("the high sandy bank") by the native Lenape Native Americans.
It is historically descended from its precursor Town of Brooklyn and became New York's first commuter town in the early 19th century when a new steam ferry service provided reliable service to Wall Street.
The neighborhood is largely composed of block after block of picturesque rowhouses and a few mansions. A great range of architectural styles are represented, including a few Federal-style houses from the early 19th century in the northern part of the neighborhood, brick Greek Revival and Gothic Revival houses, and Italianate brownstones. A number of houses, particularly along Pierrepont Street and Pierrepont Place are authentic mansions. Brooklyn Heights was the first neighborhood protected by the 1965 Landmarks Preservation Law of New York City. Plymouth Church of the Pilgrims is in Brooklyn Heights.
The executive offices of the Brooklyn Dodgers were, for many years, located in the Heights, near the intersection of Montague and Court Streets. A plaque on the office building that replaced the Dodgers' old headquarters identifies it as the site where Jackie Robinson signed his major league contract.
The Promenade cantilevered over the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway (BQE) is a favorite spot among locals, offering magnificent vistas of the Statue of Liberty, the Manhattan skyline across the East River, as well as views of the Brooklyn Bridge and the Manhattan Bridge. It is a popular tourist destination for the Macy's July 4th fireworks, and for the unobstructed views of the skyline. Robert Moses originally proposed to build the BQE through the heart of Brooklyn Heights. Opposition to this plan led to the designation of the Brooklyn Heights Historic District as a historic district, and the re-routing of the expressway to the side of the bluff, allowing creation of the Promenade.
Brooklyn Heights, being a historic district has very few high-rise buildings. Among these buildings are 75 Livingston Street, Hotel St. George, the Concord Village co-op development on Adams Street (though that is considered Downtown Brooklyn by some), and the Montague-court building. Because of the lack of high-rise buildings, Brooklyn Heights has a small town atmosphere.
Situated so close to the foot of Manhattan, Brooklyn Heights is serviced by numerous subway lines, specifically the A, C, F, M, R, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
Famous residents over the years have included John A. Roebling, Washington Roebling, Henry Ward Beecher, Marilyn Monroe, Norman Mailer, Thomas Wolfe, W. H. Auden, Truman Capote, Arthur Miller, Bob Dylan (who memorialized his stay on Montague Street in "Tangled up in Blue"), Gabriel Byrne, Jennifer Connelly, Paul Giamatti, Andrea Dworkin, and Carson McCullers.
The Jehovah's Witnesses have their world headquarters in the north heights just north of the BQE, and have a pronounced presence in the area. The organization has restored a number of historic buildings to house their staff, including the former Bossert Hotel, once the seasonal home of many Dodgers players, on Montague Street.
Saint Francis College, founded in 1858 by the Franciscan Brothers on Baltic Street, moved to its current location on Remsen Street in 1960. It was the first private boys' school in the Brooklyn Catholic diocese, and later became a college in 1885.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

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Friday, September 14, 2007

Larry King (born Lawrence Harvey Zeiger on November 19, 1933) is an award-winning American writer, journalist and broadcaster. He currently hosts a nightly interview program on CNN called Larry King Live, one of the longest running talk shows on air.

Early life
A CBS staff announcer, who King met by chance, told him to go to Florida where there was a growing media market and where there were openings for less experienced radio personalities. King rode a bus to Miami. After initial setbacks, King got his first job in radio through persistence. A small station, WIOD in Miami Beach, hired him to clean up and perform miscellaneous tasks. When one of their announcers quit, they put him on the air. His first broadcast was on May 1, 1957, when he worked as the disc jockey from 9 am to noon. He also did two afternoon newscasts and a sportscast. He was paid $55 a week. He acquired the name Larry King when the general manager said that Zeiger was too ethnic and hard to remember, and instead suggested the surname King, which he got from an ad in The Miami Herald for King's Wholesale Liquor. He started interviewing on a midmorning show for WIOD, at Pumpernik's restaurant in Miami Beach. He would interview anyone who walked in. His first interview was with a waitress at the restaurant. Two days later, singer Bobby Darin, in Miami for a concert later that day, walked into Pumpernick's as a result of coming across King's show on his radio; Darin became King's first celebrity interview guest.
His Miami radio show launched him to local stardom. A few years later, in May 1960, he hosted Miami Undercover, airing Sunday nights at 11:30 p.m. on WPST-TV channel 10 (now WPLG). On the show he moderated debates on important issues of the time.

Miami radio
In the early 1970s, he was entangled in legal and financial troubles. He was arrested on December 20, 1971 and charged with grand larceny. The charges stemmed from a deal he had made with Louis Wolfson, who had been convicted of selling unregistered stock in 1968.
The circumstances are of what occurred between the two are unclear. According to King, he told Wolfson that he could arrange a special investigation by John Mitchell, the incoming US Attorney General, to overturn the conviction. Wolfson agreed, and paid King $48,000. King never delivered, and could not pay back the money. When Wolfson was released from prison, he went after King. According to Wolfson, King served as an intermediary between Wolfson and New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison. Garrison was investigating the assassination of President Kennedy, but needed to raise funds for the investigation. Wolfson offered to pay $25,000 to help fund the investigation. The arrangement was that Wolfson gave Larry King cash (about $5,000 per visit). King was supposed to give this to Richard Gerstein, the State Attorney for Dade County, Florida. Gerstein was to transfer the money to Garrison. This took place over a year or two. Wolfson eventually found that not all the money he gave to King made it to Garrison. The larceny charge was dropped because the statute of limitations had run out. But King pled no contest to one of 14 charges of passing bad checks. As a result of these troubles, he was off the air for three years. During those three years he worked several jobs. He was the PR director at Louisiana Downs, a race track in Louisiana and he wrote some articles for Esquire Magazine, including a major piece on New York Jets quarterback Joe Namath.

Legal and financial troubles
King managed to get back into radio by becoming the color commentator for broadcasts of the Shreveport Steamer of the World Football League on KWKH. Eventually, King was rehired by WIOD in Miami. In 1978 he went national, inheriting the nightly talk show slot on the Mutual Radio Network, broadcast coast-to-coast, that had been "Long John" Nebel's until his death, and had been pioneered by Herb Jepko. One reason King got the Mutual job is because he had once been an announcer at WGMA-AM in Hollywood, Florida which was then owned by C. Edward Little. Little went on to become president of Mutual and was the one who hired King when Nebel died. King's Mutual show developed a devoted audience, paving the way for the likes of Art Bell and King's weekend relief host Jim Bohannon, among many, many others.
It was broadcast live Monday through Friday from Midnight to 5:30am eastern time. Larry would interview a guest for the first 90 minutes, allowing callers to continue the interview for another 90. At 3am, Larry would allow the callers to discuss any topic they pleased with him, until the end of the program, where he expressed his own political opinions. They called that segment "Open Phone America". Some of the regular callers included "The Portland Laugher", "The Todd Cruz Caller", "The Scandal Scooper", and "The Water is Warm Caller". The show was wildly successful as a loss leader, starting with relatively few affiliates and eventually growing to more than 500. It ran until 1994.
For its final year, the show was moved to afternoons but, because most talk radio stations at the time had an established policy of local origination at the time (3 to 6 P.M. Eastern Time) that Mutual offered the show, a very low percentage of King's overnight affiliates agreed to carry his daytime show and it was unable to generate the same audience size. The afternoon show was eventually given to David Brenner and radio affiliates were given the option of carrying the audio of King's CNN evening program. He started his CNN show in June 1985, and the Westwood One radio simulcast of the CNN show continues at the time of this writing.
On the Larry King Live show, King hosts guests from a broad range of topics. This includes controversial figures of UFO conspiracy theories and alleged psychics. One notable guest is Sylvia Browne, who in 2005 told Newsweek Larry King, a believer in the paranormal, asks her to do private psychic readings.

Comeback to radio and TV
On February 27, 1987, King suffered a major heart attack and then had quintuple-bypass surgery. Coincidentally, this occurred the day after Larry King took over the Don and Mike Show. It was a life-altering event. Previously smoking was one of his trademarks and he was not apologetic about this habit. King was a three-pack-a-day smoker and kept a lit cigarette during his interview so he would not have to take time to light up during breaks. He now encourages curbing smoking to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
King has written two books about living with heart disease. Mr. King, You're Having a Heart Attack: How a heart attack and bypass surgery changed my life (1989, ISBN 0-440-50039-7) was written with New York's Newsday science editor, B. D. Colen. Taking on Heart Disease : Famous Personalities Recall How They Triumphed Over the Nation's #1 Killer and How You Can, Too (2004, ISBN 1-57954-820-2) features the experience of various celebrities with cardiovascular disease including Peggy Fleming and Regis Philbin.

Court TV Life
As result of heart attacks, he established the Larry King Cardiac Foundation, an organization to which David Letterman, through his American Foundation for Courtesy and Grooming, has also contributed. King gave $1 million to George Washington University's School of Media and Public Affairs for scholarships to students from disadvantaged backgrounds.
On September 3, 2005, King aired, "How You Can Help," a three-hour special designed to provide a forum and information clearinghouse for viewers to understand and join nationwide and global relief efforts. This was following the devastation to the Gulf Coast by Hurricane Katrina. Guest Richard Simmons, a native of New Orleans, told him, "Larry, you don't even know how much money you raised tonight. When we rebuild the city of New Orleans, we're going to name something big after you."

On September 10, 1990, while on The Joan Rivers Show, Rivers asked King which contestant in the pageant was "the ugliest." King responded, "Miss Pennsylvania. She was one of the 10 finalists and she did a great ventriloquist bit [...] The dummy was prettier."
On September 23, 2004, John Clark sued King and CNN after an interview with his ex-wife, Lynn Redgrave, aired. Clark argued that he was defamed by the banner statements scrolling at the bottom of the screen, and that the pre-taped show did not allow him to appear to defend himself. The court would not allow the suit to proceed ruling that he was not defamed. Two years later, the Ninth Circuit, Southern District of California, dismissed his appeal.

King has received many broadcasting awards. He won the Peabody Award for Excellence in broadcasting for both his radio (1982) and television (1992) shows. He has also won 10 CableACE awards for Best Interviewer and for best Talk Show Series.
In 1989, King was inducted into the Radio Hall of Fame. In 2002, the industry magazine Talkers named King both the fourth-greatest radio talk show host of all time and the top television talk show host of all time. King was the only person to place in the top ten on both lists.
King is an honorary member of the Rotary Club of Beverly Hills. He is also a recipient of the President's Award honoring his impact on media from the Los Angeles Press Club in 2006.
King is the first recipient of the Arizona State University Hugh Downs Award for Communication Excellence, presented April 11, 2007, via satellite by Downs himself. Downs, the highly respected broadcaster and TV host, sported red suspenders for the event and turned the tables on King by asking "very tough questions" about King's best, worst, most emotional and most influential interviews during King's 50 years in broadcasting. The award is sponsored by the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University.

Larry King Awards
King has been married seven times, to six different women.


Shawn Southwick, present wife

  • Married September 5, 1997 in Jewish-Mormon inter-faith ceremony.

    • Son, Chance Armstrong King (b. March 9, 1999)
      Son, Cannon Edward King (b. May 22, 2000)
      Step-son, Danny Southwick (b. 1981)
      Julie Alexander

      • Marriage dates, 7 October 1989 - 1992 (divorced)
        Sued for slander, case settled in 1994
        Sharon Lepore

        • Marriage dates, 1976 - 1984 (divorced)
          Alene Akins, former Playboy bunny

          • Second marriage dates, 1967 - 1972 (divorced)

            • Daughter, Chaia (b. 1967)
              First marriage dates, 1961 - 1963 (divorced)

              • Adopted son, Andy King (from Akins' first marriage)
                Mickey Sutphin

                • Marriage dates, 1963 - 1967 (divorced)

                  • Daughter, Kelly (Adopted by Sutphin's next husband)

                    • Currently estranged from King
                      Frada Miller (married right after high school graduation)

                      • Marriage dates, 1952 - ? (annulled) Larry King Wives (reverse chronological order):

                        Angie Dickinson (c. 1983 to c. 1988)
                        Deanna Lund (1996-?)

                        • Engagement announced
                          Rama Fox (1992-1995)

                          • Engagement announced
                            Legal dispute over financial matters Other children
                            The section could be improved by integrating relevant items into the main text and removing inappropriate items.

                            In a 2006 interview, Larry King mistakenly referred to Andre Agassi as Pancho Gonzales.
                            For a period of time Alan Kalter's "Secret Word" on the Late Show with David Letterman was said to be "sponsored" by Larry King. The sponsorship was announced by stating "Larry King - he looks like an owl."